Three Major Casting Process

Various casting processes have been developed over the time, each with its own characteristics and applications to meet specific engineering and service requirements.

typical casting parts


1. Expendable molds
- Typically made of sand, plaster, ceramics, and similar materials. Generally mixed with various binders, or bonding agents.
- A typical sand mold consists of 90% sand, 7% clay, and 3% water.
- These materials are refractory (withstand high temperature of molten metal).
- After the casting has solidified, the mold in these processes is broken up to remove the casting.


2. Permanent molds
- Made of metals that maintain their strength at high temperatures.
- They are used repeatedly. Designed so casting can be removed easily and mold can be used again.
- Better heat conductor than expandable nonmetallic molds; hence, solidifying casting is subjected to a higher rate of cooling, which affects the microstructure and the grain size.


3. Composite molds

- Made of two or more different materials (such as sand, graphite, and metal) combining the advantages of each material.
- Molds have a permanent and an expendable portion and are used in various casting processes to improve mold strength, control the cooling rates, and optimize the overall economics of the process.

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